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BG真人大游App

BG真人大游App

由皮埃尔Chandon))

Food marketing works too well. It has created and pushed a vast variety of cheap, 美味的, 方便食品, 总是声称自己很健康,但却助长了全球范围内的肥胖流行病,其后果包括更容易感染SARS-CoV-2 (Popkin等. 2020) to stigmatizing overweight children (五等. 2018).

在为BG大游App的胃打赢这场战役的同时,食品行业却失去了公众的支持. Most people around the world now firmly favor tougher food industry regulations (穆迪等. 2013).

Fortunately, work published in the 市场研究杂志 其他学术期刊提供创新的解决方案,以帮助实践者和决策者将食品营销与健康结合起来.

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再形成的限制

In response to the global obesity epidemic, the food industry and academia traditionally suggested removing fat, 盐, and increasingly sugar from products. But reformulation has limitations, 即使有可能在不损害味道的情况下改善食物的营养状况.

第一个, reformulation can create a “health halo” around foods, prompting people to eat more than they otherwise would. 一个 市场研究杂志 研究表明,给巧克力糖贴上“低脂肪”标签会导致实际脂肪含量增加28%, 但不认为, calorie intake compared to labeling the candies “regular” (Wansink和Chandon), 2006). 最近的一次 study replicated the effect, showing the health halo was stronger for obese people, unless they had undergone weight-loss surgery, 他们对营销框架效应的反应与瘦人的反应一致(Cornil等. 2021).

第二个, consumers increasingly equate healthiness with preserving food’s natural properties, 不是它的营养成分(安德烈, Chandon)和Haws 2019). 因此,“清洁食客”与怀旧的消费者联合起来,反对他们所知道和喜欢的品牌的重新包装.

Healthy Eating Nudges Can Work

What should food marketers mindful of public health do? 最近的一项荟萃分析确定了鼓励更健康食物选择的最有效干预措施, whether in supermarkets or restaurants (Cadario and Chandon) 2020). The researchers group the “nudges” into three broad categories:

  1. Cognitive nudges provide information about food product healthiness, often employing a nutrition label or symbol. 最近的一次 市场研究杂志 研究(Bollinger等. 2020) and France-based randomized controlled trial (杜布瓦等. 2021) both showed informative nudges have limited influence on food choices; they reduce a person’s daily energy intake by an amount equivalent to five to nine sugar cubes.
  2. 情感推动试图通过书面或口头鼓励来激励消费者吃得更好. They highlight a healthy food’s taste, not its nutritional value (e.g., “twisted citrus-glazed carrots”). Affective nudges are twice as effective as cognitive nudges, reducing daily energy intake by as much as the equivalent of 13 to 17 sugar cubes.
  3. 行为推动寻求直接影响消费者的行动,而不一定改变他们的想法或想要的. 换句话说, they emphasize convenience by making healthy choices easier than unhealthy choices, e.g.在美国,人们可以预先切好水果,预先装盘,或者在自助服务热线的开头放置健康食品. 最有效的行为推动改变了人们在盘子里的食物量. They are three times as effective as cognitive nudges on average, 减少的每日能量摄入量相当于32块方糖.

BG真人大游App: Less Size, More Pleasure

越来越多的研究人员已经研究了通过情感和行为两种方式来鼓励人们吃得更好的替代方法, 而不是认知, 干预措施. Some researchers call the 干预措施 “epicurean,” as they are consistent with the instructions of Epicurus, 谁写的, “The wise person does not choose the largest amount of food, 但这是最令人愉快的.”

这种行为享乐主义的方法试图让小份食物看起来“正常”.“食物份量和食品包装大幅增加,但重量和体积看起来都比实际小. 一个 市场研究杂志 study showed that people underestimated the energy in a 1,000卡路里的膳食减少25%, despite accurately estimating the calories in a smaller meal (Chandon) and Wansink, 2007). The researchers found underestimation bias was related to portion size, 不是身体大小, 正常体重的人的判断和超重的人一样不准确. 其他研究表明,儿童和成人对尺寸的感知比实际尺寸的增长要慢,甚至在专业厨师和营养师中也是如此(Chandon)和Ordabayeva 2017). Consumers therefore choose cheap, supersize portions that are larger than they realize, leading to overeating and food waste.

Why don’t more companies downsize their products? Because shoppers notice size decreases more than increases and react negatively (Chandon)和Ordabayeva 2017). 一个鼓励选择更小份量的有效策略是通过拉长产品来缩小产品尺寸(增加高度同时减少底座), 如第一个所示 拉古比尔和克里希纳(1999). 在后来的研究中, 研究人员利用延伸率将一款产品缩小了24%,而参与者并未察觉, even when they were incentivized for accuracy and able to weigh the product (Ordabayeva and Chandon), 2013).

情感享乐主义的方法利用了消费者选择大份量食物的倾向,因为它们提供了价值,使人感到满足,而忽略了他或她在吃东西时的感觉. 第一口吃东西时,感官的愉悦感达到顶峰,每多咬一口,感官的愉悦感就会减弱. 消费者没有意识到他们的整体体验评级受到平均水平的影响, 不求和, 每一口的快乐. 从快乐的角度来看,成年人和孩子都倾向于选择份量太大的食物, as their last bite denigrates the average experience (施瓦茨等. 2020).

In a series of studies published in the 市场研究杂志,研究人员用感官意象引导消费者,让他们想象吃享乐食品(Cornil and Chandon) 2016). 在一项研究中, 该策略将367名不受约束的成年女性选择的甜点尺寸减少了24%, leading them to select relatively small portions for optimal 吃的乐趣. 另一项在饥饿儿童中进行的研究发现,感官意象有助于合理选择零食的份量(兰格等. 2020).

Summary

Rather than selling food as fuel as if they were in the energy business, 关注公众健康和肥胖流行的食品营销人员应该考虑关注吃的乐趣. The strategy can also lead to improved firm performance. Instead of making more money by selling more food to more people more often, firms could profit from selling smaller portions offering more pleasure. 其结果将是消费者健康和享受的胜利,也是商业的胜利.

作者简介

皮埃尔Chandon)) is the L’Oréal Chaired Professor of 市场营销, 法国欧洲工商管理学院的创新和创造力,欧洲工商管理学院-索邦大学行为实验室主任.

引用

Chandon), 皮埃尔(2021), “调整健康, Business and Pleasure Through BG真人大游App,“对JMR的影响, (8月8日, 2021), 可从http://www上读取。.retzdesign.com/2021/08/18/epicurean-food-marketing/

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